Glyco-Muscle Fueler


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Glyco-Muscle Fueler is the next generation in carbohydrate sports supplements. Glyco-Muscle Fueler was specifically designed to address four fundamental areas required to assure maximum performance and recovery.

Powered by Karbo-Lyn, a patent-pending, bio-engineered carbohydrate, Glyco-Muscle Fueler has been shown to absorb more quickly into the bloodstream than Dextrose or Waxy Maze without creating the sharp spike and crash in energy often associated with quick absorbing carbohydrates. This makes Glyco-Muscle Fueler a great choice for carbohydrate loading, sustained performance and recovery.

Glyco-Muscle Fueler offers a full spectrum of electrolytes to help defend against muscle cramps, weakening muscle contractions and slow physical reaction time. This supplement also provides an exclusive energy fuel matrix and B Vitamins to help increase natural energy levels, convert fat into energy, support VO2 Max (Oxygenation), removal of lactic acid and improve recovery.

Glyco-Muscle Fueler includes an all in one glycogen load matrix to maximize your anabolic window, improve insulin response, glycogen, carbohydrate and key nutrient update.

This supplement’s flavor is: Strawberry Passion

What kind of results can I expect from Glyco-Muscle Fueler?

Supports extreme performance and recovery

Absorbs 18.1% faster than leading carbohydrates with a crash in energy

Full spectrum of electrolytes

Supports up to two hours of good, clean energy

Provides Glycogen Loading Matrix for enhanced carb and key nutrient uptake

Sugar Free

Gluten Free

Ingredient Breakdown

Electrolytes and Vitamins

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Mononitrate): Thiamine is an essential vitamin that all humans must consume in their foods. Athletes who may deplete their vitamin levels due to stress and competition need to supplement. Thiamine has been shown to have a positive effect in the regulation and uptake of blood sugar and many studies have been done to show its positive role in helping diabetics. It may help athletes to call upon glucose reserves during training and competition. Thiamine has also been studied for its ability to relieve muscle soreness and to potentially treat serious nervous system disorders.

1. Butterworth RF. Thiamin. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, editors. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Thornalley PJ (2005). “The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) in diabetic complications”. Curr Diabetes Rev 1 (3): 287–98Slater, PV (1978). “Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with severe diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness (TRMA)”. The Australian nurses’ journal 7 (11): 40–3.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Riboflavin is an essential vitamin for athletic performance due to its ability to metabolize fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Athletes failing to supplement with vitamins need to be aware that Riboflavin is excreted in the urine and so it is possible to have sub-clinical deficiencies. This can especially be a problem as athletes continuously hydrate during activities such as long distance running or cycling and may fail to take in sufficient Riboflavin in the diet. Riboflavin is needed to maintain muscle strength, to avoid weakness and to help maintain their immunity.

1. Brody, Tom (1999). Nutritional Biochemistry. San Diego: Academic Press.Powers J. Hilary. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health, Review Article. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1352–60Goodrich RP,,Chapter 5:“The Antiviral and Antibacterial Properties of Riboflavin and Light: Applications to Blood Safety and Transfusion Medicine.”Flavins: Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vol. 6, 2006, Royal Society of Chemistry; Cambridge, United Kingdom. E Silva and AM Edwards, editors

Niacinamide: Niacinamide is a B vitamin that has numerous beneficial effects for athletes to maintain peak performance. It is a known anti-inflammatory, and may assist in reducing muscle soreness following intense workouts and competition. Niacinamide appears to aid in allowing greater endurance and it lowers oxidative stress and therefore diminishes premature aging as part of toxin build-up in the muscles. This vitamin has also been shown to lower anxiety and stress.

1. Tallman JF, Paul SM, Skolnick P, Gallager DW (1980). “Receptors for the age of anxiety: pharmacology of the benzodiazepines”. Science 207 (4428): 274–81.Niren NM (2006). “Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review”. Cutis 77 (1 Suppl): 11–6.Bhansali SG, Brazeau DA, Sonee M, Mukherjee SK. (2006). Nicotinamide prevents apoptosis in human cortical neuronal cells. Toxicol Mech Methods 16(4):173-180.Fukuwatari T, Shibata K, Ishihara K, Fushiki T, Sugimoto E (April 2001). “Elevation of blood NAD level after moderate exercise in young women and mice”. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 47 (2): 177–9.

Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCL): Vitamin B6 is essential for the breakdown of glycogen during athletic performance. Glycogen converts to energy in the cells and supplies nutrition to the muscles. Research has shown that B6 deficiencies will lead to a decline in peak athletic performance and this is especially important when athletes are not receiving enough nutrition. Additional studies show that athletes who participate at high levels of sports tend to deplete Vitamin B6 and so supplementation appears to be warranted.

1.Manore, M.M., Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements, 2002. American Society for Clinical Nutrition2. Wolfe, K., B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements? 2006, Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Oct;16(5):453-84.3. Williams, M.H., Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins 2004. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition . 1:1-6 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-1

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin): This vitamin is normally ingested by humans from meats and so athletes who are vegetarians or vegans, especially those preparing for competition, should supplement their diets. Be aware that B12, like all B vitamins are excreted through the urine and so hydration without proper diet or supplementation may cause problems. A loss of B12 may result in anemia, fatigue, overall muscle weakness and lethargy, nervous system disorders and even depression. This vitamin is essential for athletes who are in intense conditioning regimens or are increasing their strength and endurance training.

1. Masalha R, Chudakov B, Muhamad M, Rudoy I, Volkov I, Wirguin I (2001). “Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency”. Israeli Medical Association Journal 3: 701–703.Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. (2008). “Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly”. Neurology 71 (11): 826–32.

Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol): Vitamin D3 has been closely linked with Calcium and its metabolism in the human body, especially in regard to bone health. There have been numerous studies showing that proper supplementation of Vitamin D3 may reduce the incidence of fractures and may even prevent falls. Bone health is critical to athletic performance to help prevent fractures and injuries. Vitamin D3 has added benefits as well; it may fight the risks of infection, it is anti-inflammatory in nature and is necessary for good muscle function. This makes it an important supplement for recovery from workouts and competition.

1. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, Oray EJ, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Lyons RA, Flicker L, Wark J, Jackson RD, Cauley JA, Meyer HE, Pfeifer M, Sanders KM, Stähelin HB, Theiler R, Dawson-Hughes B (July 2012). “A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention”. N. Engl. J. Med. 367 (1): 40–9. Cranney A, Horsley, T, O’Donnell, S, Weiler, H, Puil, L, Ooi, D, Atkinson, S, Ward, L, Moher, D, Hanley, D, Fang, M, Yazdi, F, Garritty, C, Sampson, M, Barrowman, N, Tsertsvadze, A, Mamaladze, V (August 2007). “Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health”. Evidence report/technology assessment (158): 1–235. Grant WB, Holick MF (2005). “Benefits and requirements of vitamin D for optimal health: a review”. Alternative medicine review 10 (2): 94–111. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2011). “Scientific opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006″.

Di-Calcium Phosphate: This supplement is used as both a source of Calcium and Phosphates (Phosphorous), both minerals are essential for the formation of strong bones and teeth and help with overall joint and bone health. Phosphates are also responsible for the storage of energy and for all metabolic processes. Phosphate supplementation has also been studied for its effect on exercise performance and as an essential mineral for ensuring proper heart and cardiovascular functioning.

1. Bredle DL, Stager JM, Brechue WF, et al. Phosphate supplementation, cardiovascular function, and exercise performance in humans. J Appl Physiol 1988;65(4):1821-1826 Dave RH. Overview of pharmaceutical excipients used in tablets and capsules. Drug Topics (online). Advanstar. 10/24/2008 Accessed 03/24/2012

Potassium (Potassium Phosphate): Potassium phosphate is used in formulation as a source of Phosphorous as a supplement to athletes. Phosphorous can cause a decline in perceived exertion during rigorous exercise and it helps to diminish fatigue. Found in every cell of the body, the mineral moderates glucose in the bloodstream and improves overall muscle and bone function. It is essential that middle aged and elderly athletes get enough Phosphorous in their diets to help prevent joint or bone problem.

1. Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. Bernhardt, Nancy E.; Kasko, Artur M. (2008). Nutrition for the Middle Aged and Elderly. Nova Publishers. p. 171.

Sodium Chloride (Chloride): Sodium Chloride and Chloride ion in particular are essential for maintaining proper electrolyte balance in the body. For athletes, it is particularly important to take in a moderate amount of these ions. During athletic performance, electrolyte imbalances may occur as a result of excessive sweating and urination. Without replacement of electrolytes, severe muscle cramping may occur. The Chloride ion is both an essential part of nerve transmission and at the foundation of the muscle chemistry itself. Loss of these ions can also occur if the athlete has had severe illness prior to competition, including diarrhea or in some cases, severe changes in diet such as an attempt to “make weight,” or diet in order to rapidly lose weight.

1. Hübner, C, et al. Disruption of KCC2 reveals an essential role of K-Cl cotransport already in early synaptic inhibition. Neuron. 2001. 30:515-524.Jentsch, TJ, Stein, V, Weinreich, F, Zdebik, AA. Molecular structure and physiological function of chloride channels. Physiol. Rev. 2002. 82:503-568.Koch, MC, et al. The skeletal muscle chloride channel in dominant and recessive human myotonia. Science. 1992. 257:797-800.

Magnesium Phosphate-Tri (Tri-Magnesium Phosphate): Magnesium supplementation in the form of Magnesium Phosphate has proven to be important, particularly in sports nutrition where many athletes may not get enough Magnesium in their diets. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to increase energy and endurance, relax muscle cramping, diminish fatigue, help fight against bone weakness and assist with glycemic control. Magnesium helps when athletes must call upon reserves of glucose during endurance competition such as road racing or cycling and it may help diminish muscle soreness and cramping of the legs.

1. Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Med Hypotheses 2001;56:163-70.Gullestad L, Jacobsen T, Dolva LO. Effect of magnesium treatment on glycemic control and metabolic parameters in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:460-1 JZ, Kerstetter JE. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:715-37.

Manganese Amino Acid Chelate: Manganese is a trace element required by the human body for the proper maintenance of the skeletal system. It has been found to have a positive effect against Osteoporosis and it may be involved with bone formation itself. The mineral is also important for healthy blood and may prevent cramping. Manganese should be taken into the body in a form that is chelated and safe, so that it can be utilized in the correct manner. Athletes benefit from Manganese in that it helps to keep the bones strong especially in weight bearing, repetitive situations such as long distance running, tennis and soccer.

1. Freeland-Graves JH. Manganese: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutr Today 1988;23:13-9.Yin, Z; Jiang, H; Lee, ES; Ni, M; Erikson, KM; Milatovic, D; Bowman, AB; Aschner, M (2010). “Ferroportin is a manganese-responsive protein that decreases manganese cytotoxicity and accumulation”. Journal of Neurochemistry 112 (5): 1190–8.Finley, John Weldon; Davis, Cindy D. (1999). “Manganese deficiency and toxicity: Are high or low dietary amounts of manganese cause for concern?”. BioFactors 10 (1): 15–24

Chromium (as Chromium Polynicotinate): Chromium Polynicotinate, the form of Chromium used in all of our products has been shown to be the most effective of the chelated Chromium compounds in its role in metabolism, reducing blood sugar and possibly aiding in weight loss. That Chromium can help improve metabolism insofar as accelerated carbohydrate (glucose) utilization is important to runners, weightlifters, cyclists and martial artists who need to call upon energy reserves to quickly gain energy and to enhance their athletic performance.

1. Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes and Metabolism. 2000;26(1)22-27.Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1,786-1,791.Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:1449-1452

Phosphorous (from Potassium Phosphate, Magnesium Phosphate, Calcium Phosphate): In addition to the fact that Phosphorous can cause a decline in perceived exertion during rigorous exercise and helps to diminish fatigue, the mineral moderates glucose in the bloodstream and improves overall muscle and bone function. Phosphorous is at the very basis of the energy cycle within each cell of the body. Our formulation ensures that Phosphorous is available through many different safe to use compounds. Phosphorous is essential for the prevention of brittleness to the bones of middle aged and elderly athletes and it is important to get enough Phosphorous in the diet to help prevent joint or bone problems.

1. Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. Bernhardt, Nancy E.; Kasko, Artur M. (2008). Nutrition for the Middle Aged and Elderly. Nova Publishers. p. 171.

PNP Energy Fuel Matrix

Karbolyn® (Homopolysaccharide Derived from Potato, Rice and Corn) Patent Pending: A Homopolysaccharide in simplest terms is a carbohydrate compound composed of the same sugars repeating the pattern over and over again. It is complex in its structure and it has the ability to be readily absorbed in the stomach to create an immediate source of energy. The Karbolyn® Homopolysaccharide structure is such that it can pull all of the ingredients of the PNP Energy Fuel Matrix along with it, making sure the ingredients are available for immediate use whether preparing for a tough workout, recovery from a workout or athletic competition or for maintenance.

1., Harvey, Ferrier. Biochemistry 4th Edition. 2008.

Citrulline DL-Malate 2:1: Citrulline Malate is an organic compound that has proven of value to weight lifters, sprinters or any athlete who must call upon rapid bursts of energy requiring maximum effort. This supplement reduces muscle fatigue, promotes aerobic energy output and fights against muscle weakness. Its action works through its effects against toxic build-up caused when muscle cells breakdown in the absence of oxygen. The toxins normally weaken muscles and create muscle soreness. Citrulline Malate helps to prevent that effect.

1. Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ (Aug 2002). “Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle”. Br J Sports Med 36 (4): 282–9. Janeira, M. A., Maia, J. R., & Santos, P. J. (1998). Citrulline malate effects on the aerobic-anaerobic threshold and in post-exercise blood lactate recovery. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(5), Supplement abstract 880

L-Carnosine: Carnosine is an amino acid supplement that has created tremendous interest in the athletic community for its ability to retard the aging of cells. This effect means that Carnosine may have the ability to allow cells to undergo more stress during competition and intense workouts, resulting in a strengthening of the muscle cells. It is already showing that it is a powerful anti-oxidant and it may have very positive action in helping to reverse diseases where glucose uptake is a problem. For athletes it means that energy reserves can be more quickly called upon during exercise.

1. Liu, Wen-hu; Liu, Te-Chung; Yin, Mei-Chin (2008). “Beneficial effects of histidine and carnosine on ethanol-induced chronic liver injury”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (5): 1503–9.Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Borin G. Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(20):2293-315.Janssen, B.; Hohenadel, D.; Brinkkoetter, P.; Peters, V.; Rind, N.; Fischer, C.; Rychlik, I.; Cerna, M. et al. (2005). “Carnosine as a Protective Factor in Diabetic Nephropathy: Association with a Leucine Repeat of the Carnosinase Gene CNDP1″. Diabetes 54 (8): 2320–7.Reddy, V. P.; Garrett, MR; Perry, G; Smith, MA (2005). “Carnosine: A Versatile Antioxidant and Antiglycating Agent”. Science of Aging Knowledge Environment 2005 (18): pe12.Kohen, R. (1988). “Antioxidant Activity of Carnosine, Homocarnosine, and Anserine Present in Muscle and Brain”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85 (9): 3175.

L-Citrulline: L-Citrulline is organic and natural in origin having first been isolated from the rinds of watermelon. In this form as well as in other forms, Citrulline is known for its ability to enhance athletic performance by reducing muscle fatigue and to help against muscular tissue inflammation. The mechanism by how Citrulline works is by helping the body eliminate toxins from muscles as the muscle exercises while in normal situations the waste products such as ammonia would just build up. The muscles then have the ability to continue to exercise and the athlete feels more power and energy during the workout. Citrulline may also have benefits against arthritis making it additionally valued among older athletes.

1. Cox M, Lehninger AL, Nelson DR (2000). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ (Aug 2002). “Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle”. Br J Sports Med 36 (4): 282–9.Coenen D, Verschueren P, Westhovens R, Bossuyt X (March 2007). “Technical and diagnostic performance of 6 assays for the measurement of citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis”. Clin. Chem. 53 (3): 498–504

Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine: This supplement has been creating a lot of attention for its potential ability to increase blood flow and bring oxygen to the muscles during peak periods of exercise. Scientific testing also seems to indicate that Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine is able to increase athletic performance during periods where the body goes anaerobic such as sprinting, martial arts training and competition, wrestling or any period of exercise where the muscles use more oxygen than they take in by breathing

1. Bloomer RJ, Tschume LC, Smith WA: Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine modulates lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in human subjects. Int J Vitam Nutr Res; 79(3): 131-141, 2009 Jacobs PL, Goldstein ER, Blackburn W, Orem I, Hughes JJ. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 6(9): Epub Apr 2, 2009. Smith WA, Fry AC, Tschume LC, Bloomer RJ. Effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Int J Sport. Nutr Exerc Metab; 18(1): 19-36, 2008.

Acetyl L-Carnitine: This form of Carnitine has gained credibility for its ability to increase blood flow to the muscles and to help the body overcome the effects of fatigue before, during and after exercise. It has even been explored as an alternative drug to use to treat erectile dysfunction. Acetyl L-Carnitine aids with increasing motivation, focus and concentration during workouts and helps with concentration during exhausting athletic events such as marathons. It helps the body overcome the effects of exercise on cell performance.

1. Berni A, Meschini R, Filippi S, Palitti F, De Amicis A, Chessa L. L-carnitine enhances resistance to oxidative stress by reducing DNA damage in Ataxia telangiectasia cells. Mutat Res. 2008;650(2):165-74. Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP, Vacante M, Colonna V, Motta M. L-carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centurians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(6):1738-44 Werbach MR. Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. Altern Med Rev. 2000;5(2):93-108

L-Carnitine Fumarate: This form of Carnitine combines food grade Fumaric acid with L-Carnitine which results in a form that is absorbed more readily and provides extra energy to the cells uring the metabolic process. L-Carnitine Fumarate has the reputation of improving both athletic performance and endurance. It assists with the conditioning of the heart and blood vessels. As with other forms of Carnitine, this form has gained credibility for its ability to increase blood flow to the muscles and to help the body overcome the effects of fatigue before, during and after exercise.

1. Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG, Creager MA, Hirsch AT, Cooke JP, Olin JW, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves exercise performance and functional status in patients with claudication. Am J Med. 2001;110(8):616-622 Volek J, et al. Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(10). Xue YZ, Wang LX, Liu HZ, Qi XW, Wang XH, Ren HZ. L-carnitine as an adjunct therapy to percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2007;21(6):445-8

L-Carnitine Tartrate: This form of L-Carnitine offers several beneficial effects to athletes, especially in terms of recovery from vigorous exercise and in competition itself. In scientific studies L-Carnitine Tartrate has been shown not only to reduce the damage to muscles, but also helps to promote muscle growth itself. It is theorized that the compound allows greater quantities of muscle building hormones to reach the muscle cells shortly after concentrated weight lifting or exercise sessions and to immediately go to work to aid in recovery and adding of muscle mass.

1. Kraemer, W.J., et al. The Effects of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res 17(3): 455-462, 2003.Volek, J.S., et al. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282(2): E474-E482, 2002.Willoughby, D.S., and L. Taylor. Effects of sequential bouts of resistance exercise on androgen receptor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(9):1499-1506, 2004.

ATP (as Adenosine Triphosphate): ATP is the very chemical that is responsible for supplying energy to every cell of the human body. Many references refer to ATP as a “chemical battery” and virtually every cell must have a supply of ATP in order to properly function. Supplementation of ATP in athletes may speed muscle build-up following excercize such as resistance training and may with faster recovery. There is also evidence that supplementation with ATP may help speed up fat metabolism in those trying to get back in shape.

1. Ronnett G, Kim E, Landree L, Tu Y (2005). “Fatty acid metabolism as a target for obesity treatment”. Physiol Behav 85 (1): 25–35.

2. Wilson, J.M. “Effects of oral adenosine-5′-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men” Nutrition & Metabolism (2013), 10:57

Coenzyme Q-10: This organic compound is found within every cell of the human body however, scientists have found that those with heart conditions, muscular problems and diabetes tend to have lower amounts than healthy individuals. Coenzyme Q-10 has been shown to be a powerful anti-oxidant especially in regard to protecting the heart and the overall nervous system. It is of strong benefit to athletes who want to maintain strong cardiovascular health, and may have positive effects against hypertension and could help older athletes perform at higher levels.

1. First Drug to Significantly Improve Heart Failure Mortality in Over a Decade ScienceDaily, 25 May 2013.

2. Molyneux SL, Florkowski CM, George PM, et al. (October 2008). “Coenzyme Q10: an independent predictor of mortality in chronic heart failure”. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 52 (18): 1435–41.

3. Matthews RT, Yang L, Browne S, Baik M, Beal MF. Coenzyme Q10 administration increases brain mitochondrial concentrations and exerts neuroprotective effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(15):8892-8897.

4. Rosenfeldt, F L; Haas, S J; Krum, H; Hadj, A; Ng, K; Leong, J-Y; Watts, G F (2007). “Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials”. Journal of Human Hypertension 21 (4): 297–306.

5. Sohal, Rajindar S.; Kamzalov, Sergey; Sumien, Nathalie; Ferguson, Melissa; Rebrin, Igor; Heinrich, Kevin R.; Forster, Michael J. (2006). “Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 40 (3): 480–7.

L-Tyrosine: Tyrosine has received a great deal of attention among trainers and athletes for its effects on improving nerve function without having any ill effects on mood. An natural ingredient, Tyrosine is said to lower stress hormones while creating an improvement in mental sharpness and awareness and as a result, creates an improvement in physical performance. Tyrosine has also been used to lower the risks associated with stress and fatigue; two factors that often accompany intense physical training.

1. Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). “Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress”. Brain Res. Bull. 33 (3): 319–23.Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). “Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course”. Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2): 203–9.Lieberman HR, Corkin S, Spring BJ, Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH (1985). “The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior”. Am J Clin Nutr. 42 (2): 366–370.

Glycogen Load Matrix:

4-Hydroxyisoleucine (Fenugreek Extract): Fenugreek has been found to have many potentially excellent benefits for athletes, especially older athletes both female and male. It has the ability to regulate glucose in the bloodstream to enable better utilization of nutrients during exercise. It is anti-inflammatory in nature and helps with muscle recovery following strenuous exercise and competition. It is an herb responsible for improving heart health and circulation. Fenugreek is also reputed to naturally build strength and muscle mass especially as a response to heavy resistance training such as weight lifting.

1. Steels, E.; Rao, A.; Vitetta, L. (2011). “Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation”. Phytotherapy Research: Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Lal, B (2001). “Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study”. J Assoc Physicians India 49: 1057–61.Guilford JM, Pezzuto JM: Natural products as inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2008, 17(9):1341-1352.Sharma, RD; Raghuram, TC; Rao, NS (1990). “Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44 (4): 301–6.Nichols JF, Omizo DK, Peterson KK, Nelson KP: Efficacy of heavy-resistance training for active women over sixty: muscular strength, body composition, and program adherence. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993, 41:205-21

Guanidinopropionic Acid: This supplement, now widely used by competitive athletes has been closely studied for its dual effects of controlling the release of glucose into the bloodstream and its possible abilities to help the muscles fight fatigue. The ability to steadily draw on energy reserves is important to endurance competition is sports such as long-distance running, tennis, volleyball or any activity where it is important to maintain proper glucose levels. The ability of Guanidinopropionic Acid to help fight muscle fatigue also has major benefits for competition where final “bursts” of energy are necessary after a long period of heightened athletic performance.

1. Metzner, L.; Dorn, M.; Markwardt, F.; Brandsch, M. (April 2009). “The Orally Active Antihyperglycemic Drug β-Guanidinopropionic Acid is Transported by the Human Proton-Coupled Amino Acid Transporter hPAT1″. Molecular Pharmaceutics 6 (3): 1006–1011Oudman, I., The effect of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid on energy metabolism: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52879. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052879. Epub 2013 Jan 9Meglasson, M. D.; Wilson, J. M.; Yu, J. H.; Robinson, D. D.; Wyse, B. M.; de Souza, C. J. (September 1993). “Antihyperglycemic Action of Guanidinoalkanoic Acids: 3-Guanidinopropionic Acid Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in Diabetic KKAy and C57BL6Job/ob Mice and Increases Glucose Disappearance in Rhesus Monkeys”. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 266 (3): 1454–1462.

Cinnulin Cinnamon 10:1 Extract: Cinnulin Cinnamon, the water soluble version of Cassia bark extract (Cinnamon) has been reported to reduce the swelling and pain associated with sore joints, muscles and muscle spasms. For athletes needing to recover from the rigors of training and competition these effects are quite positive. Cassia has also been shown to reduce negative intestinal effects, including gas, bloating and stomach cramps. Recent important findings, especially for athletes, relate to Cinnulin Cinnamon being able to lower and regulate blood sugar. Th


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